1Mineralogy, Petrology, and Mineral Deposits (070901)

Mineralogy, petrology, and mineral deposits are fundamental disciplines in earth science. They focus on the composition, structure, and evolution of the solid Earth, studying planetary formation and differentiation, continental formation and evolution, lithospheric evolution, plate tectonics, orogeny, ore formation processes, and related environmental changes and their impacts on ecological evolution. These disciplines guide geological surveys and various types of mineral resource exploration.

The main research directions in this field include: (1) mineral crystal chemistry; (2) diagenetic ore-forming mineralogy; (3) surface mineralogy; (4) clay mineralogy; (5) computational mineralogy; (6) planetary mineralogy; (7) petrogeochemistry; (8) igneous petrology; (9) experimental petrology; (10) precambrian geology; (11) tectonic petrology; (12) sedimentology and petroleum geology; (13) metal deposit formation mechanisms; (14) granites, volcanics, and ore-forming processes; (15) geological fluids and ore deposits; (16) experimental and theoretical simulations of ore-forming processes; (17) mineral resource economics and geological environment of mines; (18) geochemistry of ore-forming processes; (19) petroleum geology and reservoir formation mechanisms; (20) urban mineral resources; (21) planetary science.

2Geochemistry (070902)

Geochemistry is the study of the chemical components, chemical elements, and isotopes in the Earth and the universe, their distribution, coexistence, migration, enrichment, and changes in motion and process.

The main research directions in this field include: (1) elemental geochemistry; (2) isotope geochemistry; (3) ore deposit geochemistry; (4) environmental geochemistry; (5) surficial geochemistry; (6) experimental geochemistry; (7) petroleum geochemistry; (8) organic geochemistry; (9) biogeochemistry; (10) geochemical cycles; (11) global change; (12) applied geochemistry.

3Paleontology and Stratigraphy (070903)

Paleontology is a fundamental discipline that studies the classification, ecology, origin, and evolution of ancient organisms, while stratigraphy, which is closely related to paleontology, studies the formation sequence, temporal and spatial changes, environmental changes, and development stages and rules of crustal materials. In the new era, "Paleontology and Stratigraphy" uses research methods from multiple disciplines, such as modern biology, geology, geochemistry, computer science, and statistics, to establish high-precision geological time frameworks, identify the types and key periods of biological evolution, track major environmental events during key periods, simulate the interactions between organisms and the environment, and ultimately reveal the coevolution mechanism between organisms and the environment.

The main research directions in this field include: (1) classical paleontology and stratigraphy; (2) macroevolutionary patterns and events; (3) tracking and restoration of paleoenvironments and paleoclimates; (4) taphonomy and paleobiology of exceptional fossils; (5) high-precision quantitative studies of fossil big data and biological evolutionary events; (6) integrated computer simulations of the coevolution of organisms and the environment; (7) constraints and reconstruction of the temporal and spatial distribution of fossil energy and sedimentary mineral resources.

4Structural Geology (070904)

Structural geology studies the geometry, kinematics, and dynamics of rock deformation at micro to regional scales, while tectonics investigates the composition, internal structure, tectonic evolution, and interactions between Earth and similar terrestrial planets at regional to global scales. Structural geology integrates with other branches of geosciences, physics, chemistry, mathematics, materials science, computer science, and information science, providing guidance in exploring deep material cycling, resource exploration and development, earthquake prevention and disaster reduction, and serving as an important foundation for studying climate and environmental changes, planetary dynamics, and underground space utilization.

The main research directions in this field include:(1) plate tectonics; (2) tectonic evolution of orogenic belts; (3) basin structural analysis; (4) microstructures; (5) precambrian tectonics; (6) neotectonics and active tectonics; (7) paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism; (8) structural physics; (9) deep structures; (10) thermochronology of tectonics.

5Seismology (0709Z3)

Seismology is a discipline that studies the internal structure, formation and evolution processes, and laws of the Earth's subsurface through seismic and geophysical methods. It applies principles and methods of physics to provide scientific basis for exploring energy and mineral resources, mitigating geological hazards, and optimizing the environment.

The main research directions in this field include: (1) seismology; (2) applied geophysics; (3) geodynamics; (4) rock physics.

6Planetary Geology

Planetary geology is an interdisciplinary field that studies the formation and evolution processes of solid celestial bodies in the solar system, such as planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. It aims to understand the layering structure and material composition of planets, the energy and material exchange and circulation processes between different layers, as well as the corresponding tectonic changes, environmental transitions, and the process of life evolution. Through comparative planetary studies, it provides a deeper understanding of the past, present, and future of the entire Earth system.

The main research directions in this field include: (1) planetary geology; (2) planetary chemistry; (3) planetary physics; (4) planetary mineralogy.